Improved Cook Stove as an Environmentally Friendly Technology for Rural Communities of the North and North east of
Sri Lanka ( September 2015 –January 2016)
UN-Habitat is working in the District of Killinochchi, Mullaitivu, Mannar, Jaffna and Batticaloa providing support to conflict affected communities through housing. Accessibility to electricity, LP gas and even kerosene oil in some rural areas that UN-Habitat is working is limited. The vast majority of beneficiaries depend on fuel wood as their basic energy source for cooking and sometimes for heating and lighting. As a result of continuing deforestation, the scarcity of the fuel wood is increasing.
Apart from rural energy sector, the current energy consumption pattern has implications on agro-forestry, rural economy and most importantly health of women and children. The high prevalence of respiratory tract-related and eyes-related ailments among the women of these rural communities is primarily due to exposure to smoke while cooking. Moreover, women and girl children spend a lot of time on collection of firewood.
Resultantly, this project is designed to introduce and popularise energy efficient methods for cooking, namely, Improved Cooking Stove (ICS). In order to further facilitate promoting ICS, the project will train commercial potters in making ICS for household use.
2.1 Need of the project
ICSs programmes were implemented in all districts except in the Northern and Eastern Provinces and this was due to the civil war that was prevailing in these areas. This has created a great demand for ICSs and several NGOs and Government organizations are in desperate search to buy and supply ‘Anagi’ ICS. The annual production of ‘Anagi’ ICS is about 300,000 and this alone cannot meet the prevailing demand. The stoves that are produced are being supplied through usual supply channels and the producers are not willing to break these procedures. Therefore, in order to meet the demand and ensure the continuity of production selected potter families from the target areas have to be trained in the production of ‘Anagi’ stoves.
It has been observed that a well managed kitchen with an improved stove and a chimney would reduce the emissions considerably and also reduce the indoor air pollution. Consequently, an improved kitchen would lower the GHG emissions and also relieve the housewives from suffering due to toxic emissions which causes many ailments such as asthma, cataract, respiratory deceases etc. Introduction of the improved kitchens to these target areas would be very beneficial.
ICS Experience with UNHabitat
An ICS programme in coordination with UNHabitat was successfully completed by IDEA in May 2015 - March 20th to May 20th 2015. This programme targeted towards the dissemination and installation of 300 stoves in the Killinochchi and Mullativu districts. Under this programme successful training was undertaken to train 10 personnel on promotion, 10 personnel on installation and 3 potters on “Anagi” stove production. Given the time duration for the project- 3 Months- the results from the project were beyond satisfactory. The Infrastructure developments at potter locations were successfully completed and put in to use. With prior experience on dissemination and installation of stoves in the North, the issues and challenges which could arise implementing such a project are thoroughly understood by IDEA officials.
This experience should immensely benefit the proposed project in the planning and implementation phases in the future.
3.1 Overall Objective
To introduce, popularise and promote the use of renewable energy more effectively and user friendly to raise the living standard of rural communities, conserve the environment and improve health conditions of the household while encouraging sustainable and commercial production of ICS.
3.2 Specific Objectives
3.2.1 Raising awareness among the beneficiary communities on the advantages of using ICS with cooking demonstrations.
3.2.2 Distribution of 500‘Anagi’ ICS and training 20 individuals on promotion and 20 individuals on installation of ICS.
Dissemination, Installation and use of Anagi stoves
All project operations would be based in Killinochi, Mulativu & Batticaloa districts. The planned operations for the three districts in terms of dissemination ,installation and use are as follows;
Baticaloa: 200 stoves are to be disseminated where 100 stoves would be put to direct use and the remaining 100 would be installed
Kilinochchi: 150 stoves are to be disseminated where 75 stoves would be put to direct use and the remaining 75 would be installed
Mulativu: 150 stoves are to be disseminated where 75 stoves would be put to direct use and the remaining 75 would be installed
Training of promoters: Two training programmes are to be organized in
- Kilinochchi and Mulativu to train and produce 10 Promoters
- Baticaloa District to train and produce 10 promoters
Training of installers: Two training programmes are to be organized in
- Kilinochchi and Mulativu to produce 10 trained installers
- Baticaloa District to produce 10 trained installers
3.2.3 Train 2 traditional potters from Batticaloa on commercial production of ICS while providing production aids and improving infrastructure facilities.
3.2.3 Implementation of a purchasing framework to motivate previously trained potters from Killinochchi and Mullativ (Previously trained under the previous ICS programme implemented in Killinochchi and Mullativu) by inviting them to supply a portion of the stoves to be installed in Batticaloa under the project- Preferably 200.
4. Target Beneficiaries
The target beneficiaries of the project are rural households of the District of Mullaitivu ,Kilinochchi and Batticaloa who are assisted by UN-Habitat with housing and a few rural commercial potters from the Batticaloa District.
5. IMPROVED COOKING STOVE
The traditional cooking stoves consume more fuel and emit smoke which is harmful for health as well as causing environmental degradation through fuel wood consumption. Various types of ICSs have been developed for both commercial level and household usage.
ICS has many direct and indirect benefits such as increased thermal efficiency, conservation of forests by cut back in firewood consumption, reduction in womens’ labour on collection of firewood, reduction of indoor air pollution and thereby, reduction in smoke released health disorders, prevention of fire hazards, and reduction of cooking time which enables more time for livelihood and leisure activities thus making the cooking task more ergonomically improved, efficient and user friendly.